The god Prajapati was widely believed to be the highest god and the creator of the universe, with Indra, known chiefly as sakra the mighty One second to him in importance. The Brahmans were very influential, but opposition had developed to their large-scale animal sacrifices-on both philosophical and economic grounds-and their pretensions to superiority by virtue of their birth were questioned. The doctrine of transmigration was by then generally accepted, although a group of outright materialists denied the survival of the soul after death. The ancestor cult, part of the Indo-european heritage, was retained almost universally, at least by the higher castes. Popular religious life largely centred around the worship of local fertility divinities (yaksha snake-spirits (naga and other minor spirits in sacred places and groves (caitya). Although these sacred places were the main centres of popular religious life, there is no evidence of any buildings or images associated with them, and it appears that neither temples nor large icons existed at the time. Around 500 bc gpa asceticism became widespread, and increasing numbers of intelligent young men "gave up the world" to search for release from transmigration by achieving a state of psychic security.
Challenges to Brahmanism (7th-2nd century bc). The century from about 550 bc onward was a period of great change in the religious life of India. This century saw the rise of breakaway sects of ascetics who denied the authority of the vedas and of the Brahmans and who followed founders claiming to have discovered the secret of obtaining release from transmigration. By far the most important of these were siddhartha gautama, called the buddha, and Vardhamana, called Mahavira great Hero the great teacher of jainism (see also buddha; jainism). There were many other heterodox teachers who organized bands of ascetic followers, and each group followed a specific code of conduct. They gained considerable support from ruling families and merchants. The latter were growing in wealth and influence, and many of them were searching for alternative forms of religious activity that would give them a more significant role than review did orthodox Brahmanism or that would be less expensive to support. The scriptures of the new religious movements throw some light on the popular religious life of the period.
On the other hand, these figures are also commonly encountered outside of India, and therefore they may have originated independently in Hinduism as well. The vedic Period (2nd millennium-7th century bc). The Aryans of the early vedic period left few material remains, but they left a very important literary record called the rigveda. Its 1,028 hymns are distributed throughout 10 books, of which the first and the last are the most recent. A hymn usually consists of three sections: it begins with an exhortation that is followed in the main part by praise of the deity, prayers, and imploration, with frequent references to the deity's mythology, and finishes with a specific request. The rigveda wisdom of the verses is not a unitary work, and its composition may have taken several centuries. In its form at the time of its final edition it reflects a well-developed religious system. The date commonly given for the final recension of the rigveda is 1000. During the next two or three centuries the Rigveda was supplemented by three other Vedas and, still later, by vedic texts called the Brahmanas and the Upanishads.
Essay on, hinduism - 1657 Words bartleby
A few male figurines in hieratic (sacerdotal) poses and one apparently in a dancing posture may represent deities. No building has been discovered at from any harappan site that can be positively identified as a temple, but the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro was almost certainly used for ritual purposes, as were the ghats (bathing steps on riverbanks) attached to later Hindu temples. The presence of bathrooms in most of the houses and the remarkable system of covered drains indicate a strong concern for cleanliness that may have been related to concepts of ritual purity as well as to ideas of hygiene. Many seals show religious and legendary themes that cannot be interpreted with certainty. There is clear evidence, however, of the worship of sacred trees or of the divinities believed to reside in them.
The bull is often depicted standing before a sort of altar, and the horned god has been interpreted, perhaps overconfidently, as a prototype of the hindu god siva. Small conical objects appear to be phallic emblems that are also connected with siva in later Hinduism, although they may have been pieces used in board games. Other interpretations of the remains of the harappa culture are more speculative and, if accepted, would indicate that many features of later Hinduism were already in existence 4,000 years ago. The fact that Harappans buried their dead with grave deposits, a practice not followed by the later Hindus, suggests that they had some belief in an afterlife. Survival of Archaic Religious Practices, some elements of the religious life of current and past folk religions-notably sacred animals, sacred trees, paper especially the pipal (Ficus religiosa and the use of small figurines for cult purposes-are found in all parts of India and may have been.
Unorthodox circles on the fringes of Brahmanic culture (probably in southern India) were one of the important sources of the system of ecstatic devotional religion known as bhakti. Thus, the history of Hinduism can be interpreted as the imposition of orthodox custom upon wider and wider ranges of people and, complementarily, as the survival of features of non-Aryan religions that gained strength steadily until they were adapted by the Brahmans. The Prehistoric Period (3rd and 2nd millennia bc). Indigenous Prehistoric Religion, the prehistoric culture of the Indus Valley arose in the latter centuries of the 3rd millennium bc from the metal-using village cultures of the region. There is considerable evidence of the religious life of the Indus people, but until their writing is deciphered its interpretation is speculative.
Enough evidence exists, however, to show that several features of later Hinduism had prehistoric origins. In most of the village cultures, small terra-cotta figurines of women, found in large quantities, have been interpreted as icons of a fertility deity whose cult was widespread in the mediterranean area and in western Asia from neolithic times onward. This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that the goddess was apparently associated with the bull-a feature also found in the ancient religions farther west. Religion in the Indus Valley civilization. The harappa culture (often called the Indus Valley civilization located in modern pakistan, has produced much evidence of the cult of the goddess and the bull. Figurines of both occur, with the goddess being more common than the bull. The bull, however, appears more frequently on the many steatite seals. A horned deity, possibly with three faces, occurs on a few seals, and on one seal he is surrounded by animals.
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This process, sometimes called "Sanskritization began in Vedic times when non-Aryan chieftains accepted the short ministrations of Brahmans and thus achieved social status for themselves and their subjects. It was probably the principal method by which Hinduism spread through the subcontinent and into beauty southeast Asia. Sanskritization still continues in the form of the conversion of tribal groups, and it is reflected by the persistent tendency of low-caste hindus to try to raise their status by adopting high-caste customs, such as wearing the sacred cord and becoming vegetarians. If Sanskritization has been the main means of spreading Hinduism throughout the subcontinent, its converse process, which has no convenient label, has been one of the means whereby hinduism has changed and developed over the centuries. The Aryan conquerors lived side by side with the indigenous inhabitants of the subcontinent, and many features of Hinduism, as distinct from Vedic religion, may have been adapted from the religions of the non-Aryan peoples of India. The phallic emblem of the god siva arose from a combination of the phallic aspects of the vedic god Indra and a non-Vedic icon of early popular fertility cults. Many features of Hindu mythology and several of the lesser gods-such as Ganesa, an elephant-headed god, and Hanuman, the monkey god-were incorporated into Hinduism and assimilated into the appropriate vedic gods by this means. Similarly, the worship of many goddesses who are now regarded as the consorts of the great male hindu gods, as well as the worship of the one great goddess herself, may have originally incorporated the worship of non-Aryan local goddesses.
Other sources, the central Asian nomads who entered India in the two centuries before and after the beginning of the Christian Era might have influenced the growth of devotional Hinduism out of Vedic religion. The classical Western world directly affected Hindu religious art, and several features of Hinduism can be traced to zoroastrianism. The influence of later Chinese taoism on Tantric Hinduism (an esoteric system of rituals for spiritual power) has been suggested, though not proved. In more recent centuries, the influence of Islam and Christianity on Hinduism can be seen. The Process of "Sanskritization". The development of Hinduism can be interpreted as a constant interaction between the religion of the upper social groups, represented by the Brahmans (priests and teachers and the religion of other groups. From the time of the Aryan invasion (c. 1500 BC) the indigenous inhabitants of the subcontinent have tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms. This has developed from the desire of lower-class groups to rise on the social ladder by adopting the ways and beliefs of the higher castes.
Type of: piece of writing, writing, written material the work of a writer; anything expressed in letters of the alphabet (especially when considered from the point of view of style and effect) 2 v make an dream effort or attempt, the infant had essayed a few. Pick up the gauntlet, take a dare be dared to do something and attempt it fight, struggle make a strenuous or labored effort give it a try, have a go make an attempt at something grope search blindly or uncertainly endeavor, endeavour, strive attempt. Non-Indo-european sources, the Dravidian Hypothesis, features of Hinduism that cannot be traced to the rigveda are sometimes ascribed to the influence of the original inhabitants, who are often vaguely and incorrectly referred to as "Dravidians." The ruling classes of the harappa culture (c. Bc or the Indus civilization, may have spoken a dravidian language, but as long as their script remains undeciphered this cannot be proved. Moreover, the presence of Dravidian speakers throughout the whole subcontinent at any time in history is not attested. The mediterranean racial type, to which most modern higher-caste Dravidian speakers belong, is widespread throughout India; but it cannot be proved that all people of this type originally spoke dravidian languages or that all followed the same culture. Equally or more widely spread in south and southeast Asia is the Proto-australoid racial type, the purest members of which in India are the tribal peoples of the centre and the south, many of whom speak languages of the austric family.
Short, essay on, sparrow in, hindi, - hindiHunt
A composition that is usually short and has a literary theme is called an essay. You should probably start writing your essay on "to kill a mockingbird" sometime before the bus ride to school the day it is due. As a noun, an essay is also an attempt, especially a tentative initial one. Your essay to make friends at your new school would probably work better if you actually spoke to other students. As a verb, to essay is to make an attempt. If you essay to run for student council, you might lose to the girl who promises more recess, longer lunches, and less homework. Full Definitions of essay 1 n paper an analytic or interpretive literary composition. Types: show 5 types. Composition, paper, report, theme an essay (especially one written as an assignment) disquisition an elaborate analytical or explanatory essay or discussion memoir an essay on a scientific or scholarly topic thanatopsis an essay expressing a view on the subject of death term paper a composition.