The internal structure of the congress Party had withered following its numerous splits, leaving it entirely dependent on her leadership for its election fortunes. Garibi hatao (Eradicate poverty) was the theme for Gandhi's 1971 bid. The slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give gandhi an independent national support, based on rural and urban poor. This would allow her to bypass the dominant rural castes both in and of state and local government; likewise the urban commercial class. And, for their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight. The programs created through Garibi hatao, though carried out locally, were funded, developed, supervised, and staffed by new Delhi and the Indian National Congress party. "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be way disbursed. Throughout the country."19 Scholars and historians now agree as to the extent of the failure of Garibi hatao in alleviating poverty - only about 4 of all funds allocated for economic development went to the three main anti-poverty programs, and precious few of these ever. Corruption charges and verdict of electoral malpractice On the high court of Allahabad declared Indira gandhi's election to the lok sabha void on grounds of electoral malpractice.
Describing the test as for peaceful purposes, India became the world's then youngest nuclear power. Green revolution main article: Green revolution in India special agricultural innovation programs and extra government support launched in the 1960s finally transformed India's chronic food shortages into surplus production of wheat, rice, cotton and milk, the success mainly attributed to the hard working majority sikh. Rather than relying on interests food aid from the United States - headed by a president whom Gandhi disliked considerably (the feeling was mutual: to nixon, Indira was "the old witch 15 the country became a food exporter. That achievement, along with the diversification of its commercial crop production, has become known as the "Green revolution". At the same time, the White revolution was an expansion in milk production which helped to combat malnutrition, especially amidst young children. 'food security as the program was called, was another source of support for Gandhi in the years leading up to 1975.16 Established in the early 1960s, the Green revolution was the unofficial name given to the Intense Agricultural District Program (iadp) which sought to insure. They had a deep personal depended.17 The program was based on four premises: 1) New varieties antipathy that coloured bilateral of seed(s 2) Acceptance of the necessity of the chemicalization of relations. Fertilizers, pesticides, weed killers, etc., 3) A commitment to national and international cooperative research to develop new and improved existing seed varieties, 4) The concept of developing a scientific, agricultural institutions in the form of land grant colleges.18 Lasting about ten years, the program was. 5 of 12 12/13/2010 1:12 pm indira gandhi - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 1971 election victory and second term Indira's government faced major problems after her tremendous mandate of 1971.
After the near-failure of the talks, the two heads of state eventually signed the Shimla Agreement, which bound the two countries to resolve the kashmir dispute by negotiations and peaceful means. Due to her antipathy for Nixon, relations with the United States grew distant, while relations with the soviet Union grew closer. 4 of 12 12/13/2010 1:12 pm indira gandhi - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia she was criticized by some for not making the line of Control (LoC) a permanent border while a few critics even believed that pakistan-administered Kashmir should have been extracted from pakistan, whose. But the agreement did remove immediate United Nations and third party interference, and greatly reduced the likelihood of pakistan launching a major attack in the near future. By not demanding total capitulation on a sensitive issue from Bhutto, she had allowed pakistan to stabilize and normalize. Trade relations were also normalized, though much contact remained frozen (sealed) for years. Nuclear weapons program A national nuclear program was started by gandhi in 1967, in response to the nuclear threat from the people's Republic of China and to establish India's stability and security interests as independent from those of the nuclear superpowers. In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named as "Smiling Buddha near the desert village of pokhran in Rajasthan.
Jawaharlal, nehru - wikipedia
Prime minister, the nehru family - motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and water standing (L to R) are jawaharlal Nehru, vijayalakshmi pandit, Krishna hutheesing, Indira, and Ranjit Pandit; seated: Swaroop Rani, motilal Nehru and Kamala nehru (circa 1927). First term Domestic policy, when Gandhi became Prime minister in 1966, the congress was split in two factions, the socialists led by gandhi, and the conservatives led by morarji desai. Rammanohar Lohia called her Gungi gudiya which means 'dumb Doll'.12 The internal problems showed in the 1967 election where the congress lost nearly 60 seats winning 297 seats in the 545 seat lok sabha. She had to accommodate desai as Deputy Prime minister of India and Minister of Finance. In 1969 after many disagreements with Desai, the Indian National Congress split. She ruled with support from Socialist and Communist Parties for the next two years.
In the same year, in July 1969 she nationalized banks. War with pakistan in 1971 main article: Indo-pakistan War of 1971. Sarvepalli radhakrishnan, the second President of India, administering the oath of office to Indira gandhi on The pakistan army conducted widespread atrocities against the civilian populations of East pakistan.1314 An estimated 10 million refugees fled to India, causing financial hardship and instability in the country. The United States under Richard Nixon supported pakistan, and mooted a un resolution warning India against going to war. Nixon apparently disliked Indira personally, referring to her as a "witch" and "clever fox" in his private communication with Secretary of State henry kissinger (now released by the State department).15 Indira signed the Treaty of Friendship and cooperation, resulting in political support and a soviet. India was victorious in the 1971 war, and Bangladesh was born. Foreign policy gandhi invited the late pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to Shimla for a week-long summit.
Studying in Europe, in 1936, her mother, kamala nehru, finally succumbed to tuberculosis after a long struggle. Indira was 18 at the time and had never experienced a stable family life during her childhood. While studying at Somerville college, university of Oxford, England, during the late 1930s, she became a member of the radical pro-independence london based India league.6 In early 1940, Indira spent time in a rest home in Switzerland to recover from chronic lung disease. She maintained her long-distance relationship with her father in the form of long letters as she was used to doing through her childhood. They argued about politics.7 In her years in continental Europe and the uk, she met a man active in politics, feroze khan who was later renamed to feroze gandhi to legalize the inter religion marriage.8 After returning to India, feroze gandhi grew close to the. Marriage to feroze gandhi, when Indira and Feroze gandhi returned to India, they were in love and had decided to get married.9 Indira liked Feroze's openness, sense of humor and self-confidence.
Jawaharlal Nehru did not like the idea of the marriage, but Indira was adamant and the marriage took place in March 1942 according to hindu rituals.10 Feroze and Indira were both members of the Indian National Congress, and when they took part in the quit. After the birth of their two sons, rajiv gandhi and Sanjay gandhi, their relationship was strained leading to a separation. Shortly after his re-election, feroze suffered a heart attack, which led to a reconciliation. Their relationship endured for the few years prior to the death of Feroze gandhi in September 1960. 3 of 12 12/13/2010 1:12 pm, indira gandhi - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia early leadership, president of the Indian National Congress. During 19, gandhi ran for and was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress. Her term of office was uneventful. She also acted as her father's chief of staff. Nehru was known as a vocal opponent of nepotism, and she did not contest a seat in the 1962 elections.
Jawaharlal, nehru - author details and biography - the
Gandhi was brought up in an intense political atmosphere at the nehru family residence, anand Bhawan, where she spent her childhood years. 2 of 12 12/13/2010 1:12 pm, indira gandhi - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia growing up in the sole care of her mother, who was sick and improve alienated from the nehru household, Indira developed strong protective instincts and a loner personality. The flurry of political activity in the nehru household made mixing with her peers difficult. She had personal conflicts with her father's world sisters, including Vijayalakshmi pandit, and these extended into her relationship with them in the political world. In her father's autobiography, toward Freedom, he writes that the police frequently came to the family home while he was in prison and took away pieces of furniture as payment toward the fines the government imposed on him. He says, "Indira, my four-year-old daughter, was greatly annoyed at this continuous process of despoliation and protested to the police and expressed her strong displeasure. I am afraid those early impressions are likely to colour her future views about the police force generally." Indira created the vanara sena movement for young girls and boys which played a small but notablecitation needed role in the Indian Independence movement, conducting protests and. In an often-told story, she smuggled out in her schoolbag an important document from her father's house under police observation, that outlined plans for a major revolutionary initiative in the early tation needed.
Due to the alleged authoritarian excesses during the period of emergency, the congress Party and Indira gandhi herself lost the next general election for the first time in 1977. Indira gandhi led the congress back to victory in 1980 elections and Gandhi resumed the office of the Prime minister. In June 1984, under Gandhi's order, the Indian army forcefully entered the golden Temple, the most sacred sikh Gurdwara, to remove armed insurgents present inside the temple. She was assassinated on in retaliation for this operation. Early life, growing up in India, indira nehru gandhi was born on 19 november 1917 to pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamala nehru and was their only child. The employee nehrus were a distinguished Kashmiri pandit family. At the time of her birth, her grandfather Motilal Nehru and father Jawaharlal were influential political leaders.
Somerville college, oxford Religion Hinduism. Returning to India in 1941, she became involved in the Indian Independence movement. In the 1950s, she served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first Prime minister of India. After her father's death in 1964 she was appointed as a member of the rajya sabha (upper house) and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting.5 The then Congress Party President. Kamaraj was instrumental in making Indira gandhi the Prime minister after the sudden demise of Shastri. Gandhi soon showed an ability to win elections and outmaneuver opponents. She introduced more left-wing economic policies and promoted agricultural productivity. She led the nation as Prime minister during the decisive victory in the 1971 war with pakistan and creation of an independent Bangladesh. A period of instability led her to impose a state of emergency in 1975.
Her father was gpa Jawaharlal Nehru and her mother was Kamala nehru. It is a common myth2 to relate the name gandhi with Mahatma gandhi, but her surname is from her marriage to feroze gandhi. Her grandfather, motilal Nehru, was a prominent Indian nationalist leader. Her father, jawaharlal Nehru, was a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime minister of Independent India. In 193435, after finishing school, Indira joined Shantiniketan,3 a school set up by rabindranath Tagore, who gave her the name Priyadarshini (priyapleasing, darshinito look at). Subsequently, she went to England and sat for the University of Oxford entrance examination, but she failed,4 and spent a few months at Badminton School in Bristol, before clearing the exam in 1937 and joining Somerville college, oxford. During this period, she was frequently meeting Feroze gandhi, whom she knew from Allahabad, and who was studying at the london School of Economics. She married Feroze in 1942. Succeeded by dinesh Singh, minister of Finance.
The dalai lama - a brief History
Download, report, description, indira gandhi - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia indira gandhi From wikipedia, the free encyclopedia indira Priyadarshini gandhi. Transcript, indira gandhi - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia indira gandhi, from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, indira Priyadarshini gandhi (Kashmiri/Hindi: Indirā Priyadarśinī gāndhī; née: Nehru; 19 november 1917 born Indira nehru to pandit Jawaharlal pdf Nehru was the Prime minister of the republic of India for three. She is India's only female prime minister to date. She is the world's all time longest serving female Prime minister.1. Indira gandhi, contents 1 Life and career 2 Early life.1 Growing up in India.2 Studying in Europe.3 Marriage to feroze gandhi 3 Early leadership.1 President of the Indian National Congress 4 Prime minister.1 First term.2 Domestic policy.3 War. Prime minister of India, in office president neelam Sanjiva reddy giani zail Singh Preceded by Choudhary Charan Singh Succeeded by rajiv gandhi In office president Sarvepalli radhakrishnan zakir Hussain Varahagiri venkata giri fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Preceded by gulzarilal Nanda succeeded by morarji desai. Minister of External Affairs, in office preceded by narasimha rao succeeded by rajiv gandhi In office preceded by mahommedali currim Chagla 1 of 12 12/13/2010 1:12 pm, indira gandhi - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia life and career, indira gandhi was born Indira nehru on november.