L Figure 14: Unmet Labor Demand as a percentage of Employed in Selected tevet li figure.1: Trends and Projections of School Age populations (19982018). 3 Figure.2: evolution in real gdp per Capita 7 Figure.1: Cross Sectional Schooling Profile with revised Repetition Structure from ihs 2 20 Figure.2: International Comparison for Gross Intake rate and Primary completion Rate (Access Rate to Grade 6 to be comparable Across. 48 Figure.1: Repetition Rate at Primary and Secondary levels in sadc countries (2006 or Closest year) (in 61 Figure.2: Percentage of Students reaching Literacy and Mathematics Competency levels in Malawi (sacmeq ii) 65 Figure.3: mean for the reading and Mathematics Test Scores. 81 Figure.5: teacher Allocation in government Funded Schools 83 Figure.6: strs by essay location 84 Figure.7: str in government Funded Primary Schools, by division 84 Map.1a: str at the district level 86 Map.1b: Sqtr at the district 86 Figure.8: Relationship. 104 xiv contents Figure.2: Access to and Completion of the different levels by wealth quintile. 107 Figure.3: Access Probability to the different Grades According to living Area. 108 Figure.4: pcr urban /pcr rural in Some African countries 108 Figure.5: Regional 109 Map.1a: Access Rate to S1 by district 111 Map.1b: Primary completion Rate by district 111 Maps.2a: Access Rate to form 1 by district 112 Map.2b. 123 Figure.3: Female participation in Malawi (Advanced) Craft Examinations (2003 2007) 125 Figure.4: Malawi Craft Pass Rates by gender and year 125 Figure.5: poverty and tevet admission by district (2005 Compared to 2008).
290 Table.5: Expected Income dark According to Education level, 15 years Old. 290 Table.6: Schooling Duration, Unit Cost, and Rates of the different Education levels 291 Table.7: mean Income by Education level as Units of gdp per Capita in Selected African countries 293 Table.8: Expected Annual Income by job Sector taking into Account Unemployment. 308 Table.5: Extent of Use of qualification 310 Table.6: Degree of Abilities and Knowledge of the Graduates 311 Table.7: Extent of Appropriateness of Professional Situation 312 Sampling 320 Table.8: Type and Grade of qualification 321 Table.9: Duration of Training courses. 325 Table.16: mean Income by positional 327 Table.17: mean Income by Occupational 327 Table.18: mean Income by way of Getting 327 Table.19: mean Income by field of Occupation 328 Table.20: mean Income by type and level of Certificates 329 Table. Xxx Figure 2: Access Rate to each Grade (2007) xxxi figure 3: sacmeq scores in English and Mathematics (sacmeq ii).xxxii figure 4: teacher Allocation in government Funded Schools map 1a: str at the district level map. Sqtr at the district figure 5: Access Rates to the different Grades According to wealth Index. Xxxv figure 6: Share of Public Education Expenditure for the 10 Percent Most Educated, Africa region map 2a: Primary completion Rates by map 2b: Secondary completion Rates by district figure 7: evolution of the distribution of Recurrent Expenditure by level of xxxviii figure 8: Contribution. Xl Figure 9: Flows of Funds to tevet figure 10: Number of Higher Education Students per 100,000 Inhabitants in Sub Saharan Africa figure 11: Higher Education Public Recurrent Unit Costs (2007 or last year available) figure 12: Job Insertion Rate (Modern Sector Only) of Higher. Xlviii contents xiii figure 13: mean Income by Education level in Relation to gdp per Capita.
248 Table.4: Correlates of msce results at National level (2006)-basic 249 Table.5: Some Characteristics of csss and cdsss 250 Table.6: Consistency of teacher Allocation across government Funded Primary Schools at District level (2007) 251 Table.7: Consistency in book allocation across government. 256 Table.3 Dropout Rates in Primary by gender, 19 (All Types of Schools) 256 Table.4 Dropout Rates in Secondary by gender, 2006 (All Types of Schools). 256 Table.5: ger and pcr for the 28 Administrative districts (2007). 258 Table.6: leaving School Examination Results at the Primary level by School Types, location, division and Gender (2006) 259 Table.7: jce and msce examination Pass Rates by School Types, location, division, and Gender 259 Table.8: Access Rates to Standard 8 and ger. 265 Table.4: Female participation in teveta sponsored courses by Applications, Short Listing, and Enrollment from 2001 to 266 Contents xi table.5: Girls' participation in Malawi Craft and Malawi Advanced Craft Examinations (in 266 Table.6: Expenditure in Public Technical Colleges 2007/08 (revised Budgeted). 267 Table.8: teveta expenditure 2002/032006/7, in '000 mk 267 Table.9: Examination fees for Malawian qualification 268 Table.10: Calculation of Private cost (Tuition fees, boarding, testing fees) for Formal tevet in Technical Colleges (Prices as of 268 Table.11: Synopsis of Programs Offered. 270 Table.15: Trade testing Pass Rate by type of Institution 271 Table.1: Categories of Expenditure as Percentage of Total Expenditure: unima 274 Table.2: Categories of Expenditure as Percentage of Total Expenditure: mzuni 274 Table.3: Categories of Expenditure as Percentage of Total. 289 Table.4: Logarithm of Annual Income According to Education level.
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133 Table.9: qualifications of teachers in TCs 140 Table.1: Enrollment, Actual Number, and Number per 100,000 Inhabitants. 149 Table.2: fields of Study (2008) 152 Table.3: Postgraduate Students by fields of Study and College (2008). 156 Contents ix Table.4: Comparison of fees in Public and Private Universities (in MK). 160 Table.5: Surplus and Deficit in Expenditures 164 Table.6a: Unit Cost Per Expenditure category: unima (in MK) 166 Table.6b: Unit Cost per Expenditure category: mzuni (in 166 Table.7: Staff Profile in Public and Private 169 Table.8: qualifications of Staff. 184 Table.2: Impact of a mother's Education on Various Adult Behaviors (Share for the different Cycles) (in ) 187 Table.3: Distribution of Workforce by level of Education and Type of Employment in Percentages for 15 years old and over (2004) 188 Table.4. 200 Table.12: Percentage of Firms that Report Labor Regulations and skill levels of Workers as a major or severe constraint in Malawi 202 Table.1: 5 16 year Old Population as of Total, sadc countries (2008). 208 Table.2: Population living Below poverty lines and Gini Index (2005 or Closest year) (in 208 Table.3: Orphans (017 years) due to aids, sadc countries (2007).
209 Table.4: African Context Indexes freshmen 209 Table.5: Other Social development Indicators 210 Table.1: Outreach Population by literacy 214 Table.2: Expected School Age population for 20, nso projections. 217 Table.3: Differences of Estimates (2006) 222 Table.4: Comparison of Some Schooling Indicators According to the sources of Data Used for the population Estimates (2006) 223 Table.5: evolution of Gross Intake rate (Access Rate to Standard 1) since 2000 225 Table.6. 228 Table.7: main reason Declared for having never Attended School (in ). 229 Table.8: Results of Econometric Model Explaining Retention Rate at the School 231 Table.9: asr and School Life Expectancy calculation for Malawi (2007). 232 x Contents Table.10: School Life Expectancy, recurrent Expenditure for Education as a share of gdp and Index, low Income African countries (2007 or closest 233 Table.1: Methodology of Recalibration to a 67 year Duration Structure. 239 Table.2: Recalibration of Malawian 2008 Recurrent Expenditure data. 239 Table.3: Breakdown of Public Recurrent Expenditure in Higher Education, African countries (2007 or last year available) 240 Table.4: Primary Education Salaries 241 Table.5: Secondary Education Salaries 241 Table.1: Degree of Randomness (1 R2) in Public teacher Allocations in Various African.
8 Table.4: Annual External Aid for Education as Percentage of gdp (20042006 9 Table.1: Enrollment Trends per Education level (19982007) 15 Table.2: Schooling coverage by level of Education (20002007) 17 Table.3: International Comparison on ger (sadc countries) 18 Table.4: Percent. 29 Table.1 Education Public Recurrent Expenditure 35 Table.2: Percentages for Education in Public Recurrent Expenditure, sadc 35 Table.3: Breakdown of Total Public Recurrent Expenditure by nature of Spending and by level of Education (in ) 37 Table.4: Breakdown of Public Recurrent. 49 Table.12: Cross country comparison of Distribution of household Education Expenditure 50 Table.13: Share of Education in household Expenditure by quintile of household 50 Table.14: Donor Financing and Extra budgetary Grants to Education (mk millions) 51 Table.15: Unit Construction Costs. 52 Table.1: Trend in Repetition Rates by Standard in Primary Schools of All Types (19) (in 60 Table.2: Repetition Rates by form in Secondary Schools of All Types (2006) (in 60 Table.3: Dropout Rates at the Primary level in All Types. 68 Table.10: Determinants of psle results at the national level (2006)- marginal Effect 71 Table.11: Determinants of msce results at the national level (2006)- marginal Effect 75 Table.12: teacher Status by location (in government Funded Primary Schools (2007) 78 Table.13: teacher. 80 Table.17: str by location in All government Funded Schools (19).
80 viii contents Table.18: strs and Class size, standards 18, in government Funded Public Schools 82 Table.19: Degree of Randomness at division level, government Funded Schools (2007) 85 Table.20: book allocation by Standards in government Aided Schools (2007). 87 Table.21: book allocation Coherence by Standards in government Aided Schools (2007) (in 88 Table.22: teacher Characteristics in government Funded Secondary Schools by type of School (2007) (in 90 Table.23: teacher Attrition by reason at the secondary level 91 Table.24: str. 103 Table.3: Percentage of Pupils reaching Minimum and Desirable levels of reading Mastery (sacmeq 105 Table.4: leaving School Examination Results at the Primary level by gender (2006) 106 Table.5: jce and msce examination Results at the secondary level by gender (2006) 106. 122 Table.3: sources of tevet funding by Training Provider System. 128 Table.4: Total Public Spending for tevet 2007/08 (MK) 129 Table.5: Summary per Trainee of Public Allocations to tcs, 2007/08. 130 Table.6: Expenditure in tc 2007/08 (revised Budget) by subprograms (in ). 131 Table.7: teveta income from 132 Table.8: teveta expenditure Structure 2002/03 to 2006/07 (in ).
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Methodology 299 Part make II: Higher Education Tracer Study 301 Introduction: The context of the University system in 301. Results of Graduate Study 304. Results of Dropout 313. Summary and 315. Conclusions and Recommendations 316 Part iii: tevet tracer Study 318 Introduction: The context of the tevet system in 318. Methodology 319 vi contents. Results of tevet study 320. Summary and 331 Part IV: Final Remarks 334 335 Tables Table 1: str in Public Schools by level of Education (2007) xl Table 2: Higher Education teachers' average salary, essay as Units of gdp per Capita for countries with gdp per Capita lower than US500 (2007. 7 Table.3: gdp per Capita and Domestic Resources as a percentage of gdp for sadc countries (ca.
External Efficiency 182 Summary of book the 182 Education and Human development in 183 Relevance of Education for the labor Market 187 206 Appendix.1: Demographic and Social development Indicators. 207 Appendix.2: Context Index, methodology of Calculation 211 Appendix.1: Education System 212 Appendix.2: Enrollment Trends 213 Appendix.3: Population Estimates for the malawi 215 Appendix.4: Cross Sectional Schooling Profiles According to emis and un population 224 Appendix.5: How to read. 231 Appendix.8: quantitative efficiency of Education Expenditure. 232 Appendix.1: Expenditure by type and source of Funding 235 Contents v appendix.2: Ministries with Some Education Activities and Education Institutions Outside of the ministry of Education 237 Appendix.3: Recurrent and Capital Allocations to ecd and Adult Literacy. 238 Appendix.4: Adjustment Methodology for Comparing Distribution of Recurrent Expenditure by level of Education 239 Appendix.5: Comparative data on Expenditure Breakdown in Higher 240 Appendix.6: teachers' salaries in Primary and Secondary Education by category of teachers 241 Appendix.1: Internal Efficiency and. 264 Appendix.2: Other tevet indicators 265 Appendix 7: Higher Education 272 Appendix.1: Duration of Job 283 Appendix.2: Results of the Impact of Education on Social Behavior 284 Appendix.3: Rates of Return of Education Investments: Calculation Method. 288 Appendix.4: Employment and Income 293 Appendix 9: Tracer Study of tevet and Higher Education Completers. 295 Part I: General Background 297. Objectives of the 298.
level. Education Expenditure and Financing 32 Summary of the 32 Total Public Recurrent Expenditure for Education 34 Public Recurrent Expenditure by level of Schooling 38 Public Recurrent Unit Costs by level of 42 household Financing 46 Donor Financing for the Education Sector (20052008) 51 Comparisons. Internal Efficiency, learning Outcomes, and Management 54 Summary of the 54 Internal Efficiency of the Education System 57 quality and learning Outcomes 64 Administration 76 Pedagogical Management: Transforming Inputs into learning Outcomes. 96 iii iv contents. Equity and 101 Summary of the 101 Disparities among Social Groups 102 Equity in Distribution of Public Resources for 114. Technical, Entrepreneurial, and Vocational Education and Training. 118 Summary of the 118 Introduction 119 Enrollment 121 Equity 124 Costs and Financing 127 Internal Efficiency and quality 135 governance Issues and Institutional Set 141. Higher 147 Summary of the 147 The genesis and Growth of Higher Education in Malawi 148 Higher Education Enrollments and fields of Study 149 158 Internal Efficiency 169 Equity in Higher 175 governance and Management 177.
The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The world add Bank of the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The International Bank for Reconstruction and development/The world Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission promptly to reproduce portions of the work. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete information to the copyright Clearance center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, danvers, ma 01923, usa, tel:, fax:,. All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Office of the publisher, The world Bank, 1818 h street nw, washington, dc 20433, usa, fax:, email. Isbn 13: eisbn: issn: doi:.1596/ Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data The education system in Malawi : country status report. LA1551.E.96897 dc Contents Foreword from the minister of Education, government of xviii foreword from the world xx Acknowledgments Acronyms and Abbreviations Executive xxviii policy recommendations Matrix by sub i technical, Entrepreneurial, and Vocational Education and Training (tevet). Demographics, social development, and Macroeconomic Conditions.
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1 8 2 The Education System in Malawi the world ban. 1 8 2 The Education System in Malawi copyright 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and development / The world Bank 1818 h street,. All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America first Printing: January 2010 Printed on recycled paper World Bank working Papers are published to communicate the results of the bank's work to the development community with the least possible delay. The manuscript of this paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formally edited texts. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and development/The world Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive directors of The world Bank or the. The world Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work.dissertation