It is wrong to kill, but exceptions are made concerning persons regarded as deserving capital punishment. Enemies do not deserve truth, especially if they will use truth to kill. In war matters of life-and-death take precedence over honesty. If the enemy can be deceived about the intended site of invasion — such as the beaches of Normandy on d-day — the lies can make the difference between victory and defeat. On-going trust is of little value with enemies of war who seek to kill and defeat one another. Deception is the psychological side of combat. Armies have usually been expected to deceive each other, from before the time of the Trojan Horse. Sun tzu (author of the art of war) wrote: "All warfare is based on deception." Because credibility is so low in war, it is generally fruitless for one adversary to attempt add to directly lie to another.
Once credibility is lost it can be very difficult to regain. The confirmed liar will only be comfortable in the company of those who are easily deceived — not those with intelligence and understanding. A person who resists lying has the capacity to build lasting relationships of trust. Trust is an important ingredient in every aspect of life which is dependent upon personal relationships — including work, business, friendship, love and family. (return to contents) iii. Lying to enemies the classic moral justification for lying is the world War II scenario of lying to nazis about Jews hidden in the attic. Credibility to nazis is essential for this scenario to work, however.
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But it is not always easy to predict who will never be of consequence. If the pattern is repeated often enough, a mistake will be made which entails a person of considerable consequence. Maintaining a false perception in the mind of a person with whom there is an on-going relationship requires constant maintenance house diligence — an on-going cost which is not incurred by someone who tells the truth. Lying about one matter makes it easier to lie about others. Lies often require more lies to shore-up the false impressions.
The liar must remember all the lies to maintain the illusions. Truth becomes a feared enemy of the liar. The intelligence of the duped person becomes the enemy of the liar. The accumulation of lies increases the probability of discovery. With discovery and plan the collapse of an elaborate fabrication comes a considerable loss of credibility and trust.
But lies can be motivated by nothing other than the creation of a false (misleadingly favorable or unfavorable) image or the fabrication of an entertaining story. (return to contents. Costs and benefits of lying. Credibility is a form of wealth. Everyone has access to some credibility. If credibility is squandered, believers are less readily available — but "there is a sucker born every minute".
This is reassuring only for persons who are content to continually populate their lives with newly-born "suckers". Lasting relationships are built on credibility and trust. There is little that people will do for each other without some amount of trust. Truthfulness and trust are usually essential for goodwill. If one wishes to be believed when speaking the truth, one must have credibility. Credibility is also required if one is to be believed when lying. The "perfect lie" is a lie that produces a benefit and which will never be discovered. Or a lie which misleads a person who will never again be of any consequence or value.
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Lying is help communication with the intention of creating a false belief. A sarcastic statement which is not intended or expected to create a false belief is not a lie, even if it essay creates a false belief. If a statement is true, but the communicator believes it is false, it still counts as a lie. Although self-deception is possible, it is difficult to accomplish with full consciousness and intention. Therefore, lying is most often done by one person to one or more others. Lies are typically motivated by a desire to persuade others to act or to refrain from acting in a certain manner — or to make decisions in one's favor. Sex, money, status, power, love — anything desired can provide temptation to kill, steal or lie.
Art of lying at m, customize text appearance: Color:. A, a font: aa, aa, size:, defaults. Some philosophizing about lying by ben Best, contents: links to sections by topic. Costs and benefits of lying, lying to enemies, lying to friends and loved-ones. Lies in work and business, lying to oneself, lying and openness. Lying and moralizing,.
It had been my intention, at this point, to mention names and to give illustrative specimens, but indications observable about me admonished me to beware of the particulars and confine myself to generalities. No fact is more firmly make established than that lying is a necessity of our circumstances-the deduction that it is then a virtue goes without saying. No virtue can reach its highest usefulness without careful and diligent cultivation-therefore, it goes without saying that this one ought to be taught in the public schools-even in the newspapers. What chance has the ignorant uncultivated liar against the educated expert? What chance have i against. Judicious lying is what the world needs. I sometimes think it were even better and safer not to lie at all than to lie injudiciously.
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Essay, for discussion, read aeeting of the historical and antiquarian club of hartford, and offered for the thirty-dollar prize.* * Did not take the prize. Observe, i do not mean to suggest that the custom of lying has suffered any decay essay or interruption-no, for the lie, as a virtue, a principle, is eternal; the lie, as a recreation, a solace, a refuge in time of need, the fourth Grace, the. My complaint simply concerns the decay of the art of lying. No high-minded man, no man of right feeling, can contemplate the lumbering and slovenly lying of the present day without grieving to see a noble art so prostituted. In this veteran presence i naturally enter upon this theme with diffidence; it is like an old maid trying to teach nursery matters to the mothers in Israel. It would not become to me to criticise you, gentlemen-who are nearly all my elders-and my superiors, in this thing-if I should here and there seem to do it, i trust it will in most cases be more in a spirit of admiration than fault-finding;. I do not say this to flatter: I say it in a spirit of just and appreciative recognition.