However, the majority of such studies have been devoted to individual regions or industrial enterprises. Moreover, as a result of the different laboratory methods used by help various authors, it is difficult to compare the data obtained. From 1996 to 2003, a study was conducted in the republic of kazakhstan with the support of the civil Research and development Fund (crdf, usa) and the ministry of Science and Higher Education of the republic of kazakhstan, in order to estimate the effect. The chief agencies conducting the study were the center for healthcare and Environmental Design (Almaty, kazakhstan) and share international, Inc. Their research involved the comprehensive study of all possible forms of impact by lead on the health of children in various regions of kazakhstan. The work was carried out using a unique set of portable equipment (niton xl-700, esa leadCare, kaulson Laboratories Hematofluorometer, and so forth as well as stationary laboratory complexes in the United States, including a computerized chemical electron microscope (ElectroMicroProbe enabling researchers to determine the chemical. Studies were conducted in the cities of Almaty, shymkent, Ust-Kamenogorsk, taldykorgan, tekeli, pavlodar, ekibastuz, and kyzylorda; more than 1100 children and 27 preschool establishments were examined, more than 5000 analyses of the quality of paints, toys, and dishes performed, and 800 express-surveys of soil pollution. The data obtained showed that the mean level of lead contained in the blood of the preschool-age children examined was.82.26 mcg/dl.
In various countries of the world, significant positive experience has been accumulated with regard to decreasing the impact of lead on the health of children. In the United States, thanks review to the existence of a special comprehensive program over the course of 20 years, the average lead content in the blood of preschool-age children has been reduced by 80 (Brody.). In the landskron region of Sweden, where the largest center for the processing of lead batteries in Europe is located, the average lead content in the populations blood was reduced in 10 years from.5.05 mcg/dl (Farago.). Over the course of two years, in the city of Zlatna (Rumania the average concentration of lead in childrens blood was reduced from 40 mcg/dl to 28 mcg/dl, in spite of the fact that discharges from industrial enterprises did not fall during that period (Activity. For the republic of kazakhstan, the problem of lead pollution is especially urgent. Not only are deposits of lead ore refined within the country, but large metallurgical enterprises are in operation as well (the Ust-Kamenogorsk lead and Zinc Combine, the yuzhpolimetall company, and others). However, to date no unified program has been developed in kazakhstan to prevent the effects of lead on childrens health. An analysis of the extent to which the problem has been studied show that kazakhstani scientists, over the course of decades, have conducted ongoing research into the hygienic aspects of environmental lead in various regions of the country (Granovsky).
For instance, as a result of the study of a group of children in whose blood increased levels of lead were found at the age of two years, disruptions in nervous system activity were discovered ten years later (Markowitz). At the present time, the threshold level of lead poisoning for preschool-age children is considered to be a level of lead in the blood equal to 10 mcg/dl. The primary sources of lead pollution are discharges from industrial enterprises (nazarbayev leaded gasoline (Perlstein, Attala and lead-containing paints and finishes used in construction and in the manufactire of dishware, toys, and other everyday objects (Bellinger.). Other sources also exist (for example, ayurvedic medicines, traditional forms of cosmetics, and others but these are encountered only in certain countries of the world. Long-term research has confirmed the direct cause-and-effect connection between the appearance of the early stages of lead poisoning in children, taking the form of disruption of the central nervous system, and the lead content in dust entering the childs body orally, through dirty hands. In order for such negative effects to appear in children, the falling of tiny particles of paint, contaminated soil, etc. Into the dust is sufficient. In this context, hygienic measures play a significant role in preventing the negative effects of lead on childrens health. The use of therapeutic medicines is less effective, since it has been proven that they temporarily lower the level of lead in the blood, but do not remove it from bone tissues.
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Alexander mokryshev, candidate of technical sciences, assistant professor at the Almaty Institute of Power Engineering and Communications. Received in revised form July 8, 2004. Lead and its toxic compounds are dangerous environmental pollutants. The influence of these substances on the health of human beings, especially children, who are the most vulnerable to the harmful impact of lead, is worthy of special study, for the following reasons: - lead is widespread (practically everywhere) in places where people reside;. Lead and lead compounds are polytrophic poisons (that is, they act on various organs and body systems and primarily cause changes in the nervous and circulatory systems, as well as disrupting fermentation reactions and vitamin exchange, and lowering immunobiological activity. The majority of children subjected to the chemical impact of lead and lead compounds suffer from subclinical effects—that is, effects that have not yet appeared in the form of illness, but which already take their toll on body functions.
The results of research show that poisoning by even small doses of lead leads to a disruption of motor and coordination skills in children (including hand-eye coordination as well as of hearing and sleep, and a stunting of physical development (Perlstein, Attala; Bellinger.;. In its publications, the world health Organization has repeatedly emphasized that lead is of no chemical or biological importance for the human body. The illnesses caused by lead and toxic lead compounds have a negative effect on the development of society as a whole, since the number of highly gifted individuals is lowered, and the number of people with decreased intellectual abilities is increased (. Lead and health ). It has been discovered that an increase of 1 mcg/dl in the lead content of the blood of preschool-age children leads to a decrease.25-0.50 points in the coefficient of a childs intellectual development. In addition, the consequences of lead poisoning may and appear many years later.
What is more, we must admit that today we are threatened by such incurable diseases as aids or hepatitis. In conclusion, i want to say that our society should pay more attention to the health of younger generation because they are the basis of our future development. I strongly believe that teenagers should be actively involved in various health projects. Should people be responsible for their own health care and have private health insurance? . today some scientists claim that governments should not control cloning experiments. Useful information: models for writers.
Short essays for compositions. Alfred Rosa, paul dford rtins. was there anything useful for you in the lesson? What was difficult for you in the lesson? What did you like in the lesson? Decreasing the dangers of the impact of lead on children in the republic of kazakhstan. Tatyana slazhneva, doctor of medicine, professor, deputy general Director of the national healthy lifestyle center, Almaty, kazakhstan. Andrei korchevsky, candidate of medicine, executive director of the center for healthcare and Environmental Design, Almaty, kazakhstan.
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11._that teenagers should be actively involved in various health projects. In my opinion, evernote nowadays young people are not gpa as healthy as they used. Firstly, young people today eat lots of genetically modified and junk food, which is definitely harmful. Secondly, modern teenagers often smoke, drink alcohol and take drugs, which leads to serious diseases. Finally, lots of teenagers are addicted to computers or watch tv all day long instead of walking and doing sports. As a result, according to the statistics, high rate of young people are overweight and suffer from heart diseases. However, there is another point of view. I do not think they are right. More than that, teenagers usually eat what they want or even skip meals.
4._ lots of teenagers are addicted to computers or watch tv all day long instead of walking and doing sports. 5 according to the statistics, high rate of young people are overweight and suffer from heart diseases. 6._ there book is another point of view. Many people ignore these facts claiming that teenagers health is steadily improving due to modern health care and better nutrition. Of course, young people do not die today of such diseases as pneumonia and tuberculosis but their health is definitely getting worse because they breath polluted air, drink polluted water and eat food with different harmful additives. 8._teenagers usually eat what they want or even skip meals. 9._ we must admit that today we are threatened by such incurable diseases as aids or hepatitis. 10_I want to say that our society should pay more attention to the health of younger generation because they are the basis of our future development.
of modern teenagers is much more worse than that of their counterparts who lived fifty years ago. Is it really so? 1._ nowadays young people are not as healthy as they used. 2._ young people today eat lots of genetically modified and junk food, which is definitely harmful. 3._ modern teenagers often smoke, drink alcohol and take drugs, which leads to serious diseases.
4) no home task. 1) make an introduction(state the problem). 2) give arguments For. 3) the give arguments Against. 4) Draw a conclusion.( your own opinion). An opinion essay 200-250 words 1) make an introduction (state the problem) 2) Express your personal opinion and give reasons for. 3) give arguments for the other point of view and explain why you dont agree with.
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Plan 1 1) revise vocabulary (exercises). 2) Get the plan of an opinion essay and compare it with the plan of a for and against essay. 3) Discuss the content of the future essay (in groups). 4) Analyze the structure of a sample essay and using linking words (exercises). 5) Home task (to write your own essay, 3 topics for choice). 6) Reflection (your opinions small about the lessons results. Plan 2 1) Get the plan of an opinion essay and analyze the title. 3) Write your own essay (consulting the teacher, dictionaries).