The United States has been the principal export market in recent years, receiving 17 percent of exports in 19Clothing, tea, and computer software are three major categories of exports to the United States. Land Tenure and Property. In an economy based on agriculture, the ownership of land is the key to survival and power. In most parts of the country, the majority of the acreage is owned by a politically dominant caste that is likely to be a middle-ranking one, not a brahmin one. However, the various regions still have different traditions of land tenure and associated systems of land taxation. India has only wallpaper recently seen the last of the rural serfs who for centuries supplied much of the basic farm labor in some parts of the country. There are still numberless landless wage laborers, tenant farmers, and landlords who rent out their extensive lands, and rich peasants who work their own holdings.
Most of mom these ceremonies have a religious basis, and the majority are linked with the deities of Hinduism. With a large proportion of the population being located in rural areas (73 percent farming is the largest source of employment; for hundreds of millions of people, this means subsistence farming on tiny plots of land, whether owned or rented. In most parts of the country, some farmers produce cash crops for sale in urban markets, and in some areas, plantation crops such as tea, coffee, cardamom, and rubber are of great economic importance because they bring in foreign money. In 1996, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was 380, and the gdp growth rate was almost 6 percent from 1990 to 1996. In that period, the average annual inflation was 9 percent. In 1994, national debt was 27 percent of gdp. Over the past half century the economy has been expanding slowly but at a steady rate on the basis of a wide range of industries, including mining operations. Major cities such as Bombay are considered residential creations of British administrators.
Food and Economy, food in daily life. About half the people eat rice as their staple, while the remainder subsist on wheat, barley, maize, and millet. There are thus major geographic differences in diet. Just as fundamental is the division between those who eat meat and those who are vegetarian. Muslims, jews, sikhs, and Christians all eat meat, with the important proviso that the first three groups do not consume pork. Lower-caste hindus eat any meat except beef, whereas members of the higher castes and all jains are normally vegetarian, with most even avoiding eggs. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Every caste, tribe, town, village, and religion has a panoply of traditional ceremonies that are observed with enthusiasm and wide participation.
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India is no stranger to ethnic conflict, especially religious wars. Nevertheless, in most parts of the. Indian shop workers in the main bazaar in jaipur, rajasthan. Country there has long been a local intercaste and intertribal economy that commonly is based on barter or the exchange of goods and services; since this system has satisfied economic necessities at least partially, ethnic conflict commonly has been dampened or kept under control because. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space. In the Indus civilization of 2700 to 1500.
C.E., india developed one of the earliest urban societies in the world, along with an extensive trading economy to support. The walled citadels in some early cities developed into elaborate palisades, walls, and moats to protect the multitude of Iron Age and medieval cities throughout much of the country. The towns and cities are of eight historic types: (1) ancient pilgrimage centers, such as Madurai; (2) local market towns, roughly one every 20 miles; (3) medieval fortified towns, such as Gwalior; (4) ancient and medieval seaports, such as Bharuch (Broach (5) military cantonments day first. Architecture developed distinct regional styles that remain apparent. These styles reflect the relative influence of the medieval Tamil kingdoms, persian and Turkic invaders in the north, portuguese and British Christianity, and all the distinctive features of the religious monuments of jainism, buddhism, Islam, and medieval Hinduism. The landscape is dotted with over half a million villages, and each region has distinctive forms of domestic architecture and village layout. Holy places of the various religions are commonly within villages and towns, but the numerous pilgrimage sites are not necessarily located there.
India was ruled by the British government after 1858 through a viceroy and a council, although several hundred "princely states" continued to maintain a measure of independence. The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, slowly moved from a position of advisor and critic for the British administration toward demanding the transference of power to native indian politicians. In 1930, the Indian National Congress, led by jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma gandhi, adopted a policy of civil disobedience with a view to achieving full national independence. It was to be a long struggle, but independence was achieved in 1947, with the condition that predominantly muslim areas in the north would form a separate country of pakistan. Mohammed Ali jinnah was to be pakastani's first prime minister, while nehru became the prime minister of the republic of India.
The departure of the colonial authorities, including the British armed forces, was peaceful, but the splitting off of pakistan caused a massive population movement and bloodshed on both sides as a result of "communal passions." A quarter century later, the eastern wing of pakistan split. National identity is not a major political issue; regional identity and the mother tongue seem to be more important. There are still millions of illiterate people who seem hardly aware that they are Indians but can be vociferous in their support of chauvinistic regional politicians. Thus, India has been plagued with secessionist struggles since independence, the most prominent of which have been a dravidistan movement in the south, an armed struggle among Kashmiri muslims for a union of their state with pakistan, a khalistan movement among Panjabi sikhs, and. India is home to several thousand ethnic groups, tribes, castes, and religions. The castes and subcastes in each region relate to each other through a permanent hierarchical structure, with each caste having its own name, traditional occupation, rank, and distinctive subculture. Tribes usually do not have a caste hierarchy but often have their own internal hierarchical organization. The pastoral and foraging tribes are relatively egalitarian in their internal organization.
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There was a long phase of Paleolithic hunting and gathering cultures parallel in time and characteristics with the paleolithic peoples of Europe and East Asia. This pdf was followed, eight thousand to ten thousand years ago, by the development of settled agricultural communities in some areas. C.E., the first genuinely urban civilization in the Indus Valley and western India. After its disappearance around 1500. C.E., there was a bewildering variety of princely states and kingdoms, small and large, throughout the subcontinent, creating a long history of war and conquest that was punctuated by foreign invasions and the birth of some of the world's largest religions: Buddhism, jainism, hinduism, and. Despite the extent of the Empire of Asoka (272232. ) and the mughal Empire (15261707 it was left to the last foreign invaders, the British, to establish a unified empire that covered most of the subcontinent during its final century.
appears on the lion column-capital of the Emperor Asoka at Sarnath. This carving, which is over 2,200 years old, is also a national emblem that is preserved in the sarnath Museum. The sandstone carving features four lions back to back, separated by wheels ( chakra, the wheel of law standing over a bell-shaped lotus. The whole carving once was surmounted by the wheel of law. The national anthem is a song composed by rabindranath Tagore in 1911 entitled. The nearly useless saka-era calendar also may be considered a national symbol, adopted in 1957 and still often used officially alongside the Gregorian calendar. History and Ethnic Relations, emergence of the nation. India has a history going back thousands of years and a prehistory going back hundreds of thousands of years.
Life expectancy in the 1991 census was sixty years, and in 1997 it was estimated that almost 5 percent of the population was age 65 or older. The population is still primarily rural, with 73 percent of the population in 1997 living outside the cities and towns. In 1991, the largest urban centers were bombay or Mumbai (12,596,243 write calcutta or Kolkata (11,021,915 delhi (8,419,084 madras or Chennai (5,421,985 hyderabad (4,253,759 and Bangalore (4,130,288). There are four major language families, each with numerous languages. Indo-Aryan, a branch of Indo-european, covers the northern half of the country, and the Dravidian family covers the southern third. In the middle regions a number of tribal languages of the munda or Austroasiatic family are spoken. In the northeastern hills, numerous Tibeto-burman languages are spoken.
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Culture name, indian, hindu, bharati, orientation, identification. India constitutes the largest part of the subcontinental land mass of south Asia, an area it shares with six other countries, including Nepal, pakistan, and Bangladesh. It has highly variable landforms, that range from torrid plains, tropical islands, and a parched desert to the highest mountain range in the world. India, on the southern subcontinent of Asia, is bounded on the northwest by pakistan; on the north by China and Tibet, nepal and Bhutan; on the northeast by bangladesh and Burma (Myanmar and on the southwest and southeast by the Indian Ocean, with the island. Excluding small parts of the country that are currently occupied by Chinese or pakistani military forces, the area of the republic of India is 1,222,237 square way miles (3,165,596 square kilometers). The 1991 census enumerated 846,302,688 residents, including 407,072,230 women, and 217 million people defined as urban dwellers. However, with a population growth rate estimated at 17 per one thousand in 1998, by may 2000 the national figure reached one billion.