8 The couple are shown in an upstairs room with a chest and a bed in it during early summer as indicated by the fruit on the cherry tree outside the window. The room probably functioned as a reception room, as it was the fashion in France and Burgundy where beds in reception rooms were used as seating, except, for example, when a mother with a new baby received visitors. The window has six interior wooden shutters, but only the top opening has glass, with clear bulls-eye pieces set in blue, red and green stained glass. 8 The two figures are very richly dressed; despite the season both their outer garments, his tabard and her dress, are trimmed and fully lined with fur. The furs may be the especially expensive sable for him and ermine or miniver for her. He wears a hat of plaited straw dyed black, as often worn in the summer at the time. His tabard was more writing purple than it appears now (as the pigments have faded over time) and may be intended to be silk velvet (another very expensive item).
The medium of oil paint also permitted van Eyck to capture surface appearance and distinguish textures precisely. He also rendered the effects of both direct and diffuse light by showing the light from the window on the left reflected by various surfaces. It has been suggested that he used a magnifying glass in order to paint the minute details such as the individual highlights on each of the amber beads hanging beside the mirror. The illusionism of the painting was remarkable for its time, in part for the rendering of detail, but particularly for the use of light to evoke space in an interior, for "its utterly convincing depiction of a room, as well of the people who inhabit. 7 Whatever meaning is given to the scene and its details, and there has been much debate on this, according to Craig Harbison the painting "is the only fifteenth-century northern panel to survive in which the artist's contemporaries are shown engaged in some sort. It is indeed tempting to call this the first genre painting a painting of everyday life of modern times". Contents Description edit The painting is generally in very good condition, though with small losses of original paint and damages, which have mostly been retouched. Infrared reflectograms of the painting show many small alterations, or pentimenti, in the underdrawing : to both faces, to the mirror, and to other elements.
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5, the portrait has been considered. Erwin Panofsky and some other understanding art historians as a unique form of marriage contract, recorded as a painting. 6, signed and dated by van Eyck in 1434, it is, with the. Ghent Altarpiece by the same artist and his brother. Hubert, the oldest very famous panel painting to have been executed in oils rather than in tempera.
The painting was bought by the. National Gallery in London in 1842. Van Eyck used the technique of applying layer after layer of thin translucent glazes to create a painting with an intensity of both tone and colour. The glowing colours also help to highlight the realism, and to show the material wealth and opulence of Arnolfini's world. Van Eyck took advantage of the longer drying time of oil paint, compared to tempera, to blend colours by painting wet-in-wet to achieve subtle variations in light and shade to heighten the illusion of three-dimensional forms.
4 Sold at Sothebys, 1 December 1983 (288). The theme was not uncommon in emblematic jewellery at this time, see yvonne hackenbroch, renaissance jewellery, london 1979,.90-1. Diana Scarisbrick and Shirley bury also kindly advised on the jewellery in the present painting. The Arnolfini portrait (or, the Arnolfini wedding, the Arnolfini marriage, the, portrait of giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife, or other titles) is a 1434 oil painting on oak panel by the, early netherlandish painter, jan van Eyck. It forms a full-length double portrait, believed to depict the Italian merchant. Giovanni di nicolao arnolfini and his wife, presumably in their home in the.
Flemish city of, bruges. It is considered one of the most original and complex paintings in Western art, because of its beauty, complex iconography, 1 geometric orthogonal perspective, 2 and expansion of the picture space with the use of a mirror. 3 4, according to, ernst Gombrich "in its own way it was as new and revolutionary. Donatello 's or, masaccio 's work in Italy. A simple corner of the real world had suddenly been fixed on to a panel as if by magic. For the first time in history the artist became the perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term".
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The approximate original proportions have been make reconstructed by placing a loose strip of wood in the frame to represent the missing section. An unfaded strip of paint protected by the frame along the bottom shows that the red of the pearl-studded dress was originally a much deeper shade of rose madder. The background, on the other hand, was probably originally lighter and seems to have been covered by a layer of dark brown paint quite early in the paintings history. It appears that a space for a coat of arms was reserved in the background, where it can be seen as a smaller, blank shield under the present elaborate cartouche. When photographed for the 1866 exhibition, the portrait bore a painted label, bottom left. Illegible in the photograph, all trace of this had vanished by 1984. Karen hearn June 2009 Notes 1 Lorne campbell, holbeins Miniature of Mrs Pemberton, burlington Magazine, vol.129,.1011, 1987,.369. 2 Art Institute of Chicago, see roy strong, The English Icon: Elizabethan jacobean Portraiture, london 1969,.96,.38. 3 Sir roy strong, letter to tate, tate catalogue files.
The three-quarter-length composition in which a female sitter, her hands at rwanda waist-level, loops up a prized and valuable object on a chain or ribbon to present it to the viewers gaze, was also popular in the low countries. Eworth used it for other portraits in the 1560s, and it is seen in various works of the same decade by his contemporary artists in England, many of whom are not now known by name. The sitters remarkable open balloon wings at the shoulders a short-lived fashion of the late 1560s appear as a fantastical Mannerist touch. The sitters fine jewellery includes a pendant at her throat with a cabochon ruby, and one large lozenge and three table-cut diamonds in an enamelled gold setting with acanthus scrolls and classical figures and a pearl knop at its base (Dr yvonne hackenbroch suggests that. The double gold chain is made up of enamelled oblong links set with pearls, alternating with pomanders caged in gold. The ladys cap and dress are studded with jewelled buttons and pearls and she wears a pearl and ruby bracelet on each wrist. Her most exceptional piece is the jewel hanging from the black ribbon at her waist, which is a chased gold and chalcedony commesso, or cameo, set in diamonds, representing Prudence holding a diamond or rock crystal mirror. It is close in style and subject to an extant commesso of Prudence dated 155060 and thought to be French. 4 The panel itself is made up from three vertical oak members, the right-hand one having been cut down as described above.
the age of the sitter is now unknown. Margaret Clifford would have been aged twenty-five to twenty-eight during these years although, as a married lady, one would expect her to have used not her parents arms but her own impaled with those of her husband. Art historian Lorne campbell has, however, shown that in sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century English portraits, married women could often be represented by their maiden coat of arms, surmounted by helmet and crest. 1, eleanor Brandon was the daughter of Henry viiis sister Mary, who had briefly been married to louis xii of France. Her descendants thus had a claim to the English throne. The wentworth Castle collection contained, in addition to this picture, another portrait by Eworth of an unknown lady, aged twenty-four, dated 1563 and of similar size with the wentworth arms placed at the left-hand edge, as if to match those of a husband. Sir roy strong suggested that the ladies portrayed might be two of the three daughters of Thomas, 1st Baron Wentworth of Nettlestead (15011551 jane (died 1614 margaret (died 1587) and Dorothy. 3 Each married advantageously more than once, although the exact wedding dates are not known.
Lady sybil Cust, homework queen Elizabeths Gentlewoman, and other sketches, london 1914,.34,. Xviii(a roy strong, hans Eworth Reconsidered, burlington Magazine, vol.108, 1966,.229, fig.6, also reproduced in roy strong, The English Icon: Elizabethan jacobean Portraiture, london 1969,. 342-5; yvonne hackenbroch, renaissance jewellery, 1979,.91, fig.232 (detail of cameo linda. Varkonda-bishop, haunce the Drawer: a study of the life and Works of Hans Eworth, tudor Artist, ann Arbour 1979,.93-5; The tate gallery 19841986: Illustrated Catalogue of Acquisitions, tate gallery, london 1988,.66-8; Jane Ashelford, Dress in the Age of Elizabeth i, london 1988,.22. The large coat of arms was added perhaps as much as a century later, and cannot refer to the sitter herself. It had been borne by henry Clifford, 2nd Earl of Cumberland and by his wife Eleanor Brandon, who accordingly was long thought to be the subject of the portrait. She, however, died in 1547, about twenty years before the date of this painting. Later it was thought that the sitter might be this couples only child, margaret Clifford (15401596) who married Henry Stanley, lord Strange, later 4th Earl of Derby, in 1555.
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Hans Eworth active.15401574, an Unknown Lady.15658, oil on panel 998 x 619 mm, inscribed: ætatis. Purchased with assistance from Tate members 1984. T03896, ownership history ; Vernon-Wentworth family, wentworth Castle, barnsley, yorkshire, by 1866; sold by capt. Vernon-Wentworth, Christies 13 november 1919 (54 as Portrait of Lady Eleanor Brandon) bought. Howard, sold to marmaduke, 1st Viscount Furness; descended in the family until anonymous sale, sothebys (256 purchased by tate. Exhibition history, national Portraits, south Kensington Museums, 1866 (198 as Portrait of Lady Eleanor Brandon by lucas de heere national Exhibition of Works of Art, leeds 1868 (516 tudor Exhibition, new mom Gallery 1890 (455 woman and Child in Art, grosvenor Gallery 1913 (xlii, repr meisterwerke. dynasties: painting in Tudor and Jacobean England, exhibition catalogue, tate gallery, london 1995,.10, reproduced.71,.28.