A controlled clinical trial of ethanol would be randomized (individuals randomly assigned to be nondrinkers, light drinkers and heavy drinkers with no differences between subject groups other than the variables under study double-blind (neither the subjects nor the experimenters know which individuals are receiving alcohol. Blinded studies of alcohol consumption are probably not feasible. (Although cross-sectional studies can be called "controlled they record a cross-section of characteristics within a short time-frame — in hippie contrast to longitudinal studies which follow the same cohort of subjects over a long time period. A cross-sectional study in a miami hospital found that most people are born Cuban and die jewish. More seriously, it has been observed that smokers have fewer beta-amyloid plaques upon autopsy than non-smokers, but smokers die at an earlier age and the autopsy results cannot be taken as proof that smoking reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease.) In reality, studies of ethanol. Like a village idiot chasing a wallet on a string, epidemiologists typically take self-reporting at face value and fail to distinguish between ex-drinkers and lifetime teetotalers — calling both "abstainers". Not surprisingly, the abstainers (including the former alcoholics) are deemed to be less healthy than light drinkers.
The incentives for wishful thinking are very high and study designs are often poor — conditions which can make for bad science. Between 16 and 33 of people in Europe and North America are estimated to abstain from drinking beverage alcohol, many of whom are former alcoholics. Ex-drinkers have high rates of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, ulcers, diabetes, gall bladder hazlitt disease and bronchitis international journal of epidemiology 17(2 307-316 (1988). Life-long abstainers are more often non-conformists and are less frequently married (unmarried people have a higher mortality rate). People often abstain from alcohol due to interaction with prescription drugs or other health-related reasons. The poor health of many abstainers should not be taken as proof of the beneficial effects of ethanol — but usually are. (return to contents). Epidemiological evidence claiming ethanol benefits epidemiology is widely used to establish health benefits hazards of various substances, including ethanol. And few substances demonstrate the perils of poor study design, confounding proxy variables (hidden variables which are more significant in producing the outcome than the reputed causative variables of the study) and bad judgement to the extent of ethanol in the hands of epidemiologists.
Because ethanol enters tissues in proportion to water content it is far more prevalent in the brain than in muscle or fat. For those who highly value their brains/minds this should be a matter of great concern. In the United States alcohol is responsible for about one-third of fatal car crashes, one-third of hospital admissions, one-third of all suicides, and half of all homicides. People who are genetically disposed to experience alcohol as tasting bitter are the least likely to drink alcohol. As well, alcohol taste becomes increasingly unpleasant with age, which correlates with age-related decrease in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, alcoholism, clinical and experimental research; Duffy, vb; 28(11 (2004). Health benefits are frequently claimed for alcohol — when consumed in moderation. Most of the claimed benefits are associated with reducing cardiovascular disease.
Essay on brain drain in india
Heylighen, date Apr 17, 2003 (modified) (created). Alcohol — health benefit or hazard? By ben Best, contents: links to sections by topic. Introductory remarks, epidemiological evidence claiming ethanol benefits, ethanol and the heart. Ethanol and the liver, ethanol and the brain, ethanol and cancer. Other effects of ethanol, conclusions, general book references,. Alcohol — specifically ethanol (ethyl alcohol, Etoh, ch3CH2OH) — is the most socially-accepted addictive drug which can have life-threatening health hazards.
Its pleasures are very widely acknowledged and form a bond of community for the majority of adults in Western countries. References to those pleasures form a kind of "standing joke" — physical mental discoordination/disorientation are viewed with bemused affection. Alcoholic beverages are a standard "lubricant" (anxiety-reliever) at social live gatherings, and those who refuse to consume ethanol run the risk of being social outcasts. Yet some people, myself included, feel concern about consuming a substance which causes physical mental Although the effects appear to be temporary, one could easily wonder about the physiological changes being wrought on the brain. And one could wonder whether the temporary effects are really desireable — even if pleasurable — and whether the brain really escapes permanent harm.
(1997)an awareness-oriented framework for the web, based on Miller 's "living Systems" theory and a collective intelligence model, to conceptualize the Internet as an organism; particular emphasis on tools for time awareness; see also: Modeling the Internet as a cyberorganism: a living Systems Framework and. The symbiotic Intelligence Project : a group at Los Alamos National Laboratory which studies self-organizing knowledge on distributed networks driven by human interaction. It has produced a few papers such as Symbiotic Intelligence and the Internet. Parker Rossman Research On Global Crises, Still Primitive? An online "book in process about how humanity's knowledge can be organized through collective intelligence in the form of a "world brain" system, to tackle various global problems, such as education, health care, peace, the environment, poverty and ethics.
Stewart " evolution's Arrow : The direction of evolution and the future of humanity" (Chapman Press, australia, 2000 argues that evolution progresses in the direction of cooperative organisations of greater scale and evolvability, up to global society. The logic of Human Destiny (Pantheon books, 2000) a very well-written book that develops a similar argument as Stewart of evolutionary progress towards greater complexity, intelligence and eventually global integration of humankind, on the basis of a retelling of human history. Michael Brooks Global Brain, new Scientist magazine,. A rather sensationalist feature article about the work of global brain researchers, based on interviews with heylighen, bollen, joslyn, johnson and goertzel. It emphasizes the scary, "Big Brother"-like possibilities, while minimizing the in-built protections against such abuse. For a somewhat more balanced view, read the accompanying editorial. Nsf/doc converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance : Nanotechnology, biotechnology, information Technology and Cognitive science (2002 a 400 page report by a large group of specialists about how these technologies working together can change our life during the next twenty years, and turn society into. Lassila bob Fink: The evolution of the social Brain (excerpts from the book "Continuum Greenwich Publishers) Flocking Together Through the web : Bird Watchers may be a harbinger of a true global Consciousness: a washington Post article The superOrganism Home page : using superorganism ideas.
Very short essay on brain drain
181.a critical examination of hippie the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the emergence of social "superorganisms like multicellular organisms, ant nests, or human organizations; concludes that humanity at present cannot yet be seen as a superorganism, and that there are serious obstacles on the road to further integration. Trappl (ed.) (1996 cybernetics and Systems '96 (Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies. 917.discusses the precise mechanisms (learning, thinking, spreading activation,.) through which a brain-like global network might be implemented, using the framework of the theory of metasystem transitions; see also learning, brain-like webs and. Heylighen: " The Global Superorganism : an evolutionary-cybernetic model of the emerging network society an extensive, in-depth review of the superorganism/global brain vision, and its implications for the future of society ben goertzel : World Wide Brain: The Emergence of Global Web Intelligence and How. David Williams The human Macro-organism as Fungus, wired.04 (1996). an intelligent parody of the superorganism view of society: "Pull Bill Gates out of his office and put him in the veldt - in four days he's a bloated corpse in the sun. ) lee li-jen Chen and Brian. Gaines : a cyberOrganism Model for Awareness in Collaborative Communities on the Internet, international journal of Intelligent Systems (ijis vol.
( order through Amazon ) an optimistic picture of the evolution of society, with many statistics on economic, social and technological progress, in which humans and machines unite, and where the individual is increasingly tied to others through technology Brian. Gaines : The collective stance in Modeling Expertise in Individuals and Organizations, international journal of Expert Systems. (see also The Emergence of Knowledge through Modeling and Management Processes in Societies of Adaptive agents. (Proceedings of the 10th Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, banff, Alberta. 24-1:24-13) and other gaines articles ) an in-depth essay review of the literature on sociology, cognitive science and systems theory about the social function of knowledge; its "collective stance" views humanity as an organism partitioned into sub-organisms, such as organizations and individuals; proposes a positive feedback. Francis heylighen donald. Campbell : Selection of Organization at the social level: obstacles and facilitators of Metasystem Transitions, "World Futures: the journal of general evolution vol.
to questions of policy. Valentin Turchin : The Phenomenon of Science. A cybernetic approach to human evolution, (Columbia university Press, new York, 1977). Cybernetic theory of universal evolution, from unicellular organisms to culture and society, culminating in the emerging "super-being based on the concept of the. Peter Russell : "The Global Brain Awakens: Our next evolutionary leap" ( Global Brain, 1996) (originally published in 1983 as "The Global Brain. For an excerpt, see towards a global Brain development of the superorganism theme in a "New Age" vision, with more emphasis on consciousness-raising techniques like meditation, and less on evolutionary mechanisms and technology. Gottfried mayer-Kress : several papers, including: Gottfried mayer-Kress cathleen Barczys (1995 "The Global Brain as an Emergent Structure from the worldwide computing Network the Information Society 11 (1). explores the analogies between global networks and complex adaptive systems, and the applications of the network to modelling complex problem domains for a summary see: The Global Brain Concept Gregory Stock : "Metaman : the merging of humans and machines into a global superorganism (Simon.
Pierre teilhard de Chardin : "le phénomène humain" (seuil, paris, 1955). (translated as : ". The Phenomenon of Man " (1959, harper row, new York). The mystical and poetic vision of future help evolutionary integration by this paleontologist and jesuit priest anticipates many recent developments. Teilhard popularized Vernadsky's term " noosphere " (mind sphere denoting the network of thoughts, information and communication that englobes the planet. See also: a globe, clothing Itself with a brain. Joël de rosnay : several books in French, including "l'homme symbiotique. Regards sur le troisième millénaire" (seuil, paris, 1996 translated as ". The symbiotic Man : a new Understanding of the Organization of Life and a vision of the future "le cerveau planétaire" (Olivier Orban, paris, 1986 "le macroscope" (seuil, paris, 1972 translated as: ".
Essay on, human, brain : Structure and Function
A collection of basic references, grouped by author, that explore the idea of the emerging planetary organism and its global brain, in the chronological order of first publication. This evernote reference material serves as the basis for the "Global Brain" study group which has been set up by some of the authors listed below. For a more up-to-date list of references, check the bibliography of the. Global Brain Institute, herbert Spencer, the Principles of Sociology (1876-96 (see intro and excerpt, including "Society is an organism" )Remarkable to note how many recently fashionable ideas about superorganisms and evolutionary integration have already been proposed by this evolutionary thinker over a century ago. Spencer coined the phrase "survival of the fittest which was later taken over by darwin. Wells, world Brain (1938 (see also:. Wellss' Idea of a world Brain : a critical re-assessment,. Boyd rayward, constructing the world mind, and. Towards the world Brain by eugene garfield)a science fiction writer's prophetic vision of a world encyclopedia of knowledge that would provide a kind of global consciousness, like the world-wide web now does.