In some ways, a city outbreak is easier to manage; when Ebola broke out in rural Congo last year, health care essay workers had to travel long distances, making sure to keep the vaccine between 60 and 80 degrees below zero centigrade. Maintaining the cold chain is a persistent challenge for some drugs—a home freezer hovers around zero degrees centigrade, and maintaining this level of chill requires consistent power. Who is shipping the product in special vaccine carriers, the organization says, and setting up freezers in Mbandaka and bikoro, where most of the cases are. Serafini says, the vaccine will stay fresh for a few days at up to 8 degrees, so the health care workers have a little latitude. In rural areas, the disease doesnt spread as far. In a city, the population is more mobile and higher density, people are closer together and more likely to have contact, Bhadelia says. Its not a slam dunk until we can get ahold of everybody theyre considering a contact. Still, a vaccine, even an experimental one, makes this Ebola outbreak unlike any other.
Thats good news, but itll only work if writing who, msf, and Congos health care teams identify the right people to vaccinate. They have to define contacts, find them, explain the vaccine and get consent to administer it, and follow up to see if it works. So heres a cool part: health workers from guinea are going to provide support, training, and disease detective work. This is West Africa lending back that expertise, says Nahid Bhadelia, medical director of the Special Pathogens Unit at Boston Universitys National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories. This is a south-south collaboration. The health care workers that went through this and gained intellectual capital are able to share. Though the rules are a little different this time.
Testing vaccines during an outbreak is tricky business. If you have a potentially life-saving drug, you cant really deny it to a control group to see if they get the disease. So the team simply delayed administration to one population. In the end, more than 4,000 people got the shot, and none of them got Ebola. (Though its also true that the outbreak was winding down by the time of the study, meaning their exposure may not have been as high as it would have been at its peak.). We have this new tool that weve never used before, and potentially thats going to alter the dynamics of the outbreak. Nahid Bhadelia, boston University, so now the pharmaceutical company merck is donating 7,500 doses of the vaccine to congo, and the international aid group gavi, the vaccine Alliance, is contributing 1 million to get it administered, according to a who press release.
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They also learned more about the disease itself. During the cold War, the military worried that the soviet resume Union might turn Ebola into a bioweapon, and researchers at the us army medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases tried to develop vaccines against it as early as the 1980s. By the time the west Africa outbreak began, researchers were working on nearly a dozen different approaches to an Ebola vaccine. One stood out: a vaccine made by re-engineering a virus that causes a disease called vesicular stomatitis. Researchers at Usamriid and the canadian Public health Agency reached inside vsv and pulled out the gene that encodes a twist of sugar and protein on its surface, a glycoprotein, and replaced it with a glycoprotein from Ebola—specifically an especially nasty strain of Ebola first. Its all right there in the name. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus is the vector, fighting Ebolavirus from zaire: rvsv-zebov.
It worked really well—in rodents and monkeys. The vsv vaccine clearly, without question, showed the most promise, says Tom geisbert, a virologist at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston who developed the vaccine at Usamriid. Also in its favor: It works as a single injection vaccination, where many of the other vaccines require multiple injections, geisbert says. West Africa was a transcontinental catastrophe, but it was also an opportunity. Researchers from the world health Organization and elsewhere were able to mount a trial of rvsv-zebov using ring vaccination, inoculating people whod come into contact with people with Ebola, and contacts of those contacts.
But this outbreak is different for another reason, too: This time there is a vaccine. Beginning Monday, health care workers and other people on the front lines of the outbreak will receive a recombinant Ebola vaccine called rvsv-zebov. After that, people whove been in contact with those infected with Ebola, and the contacts of those contacts, will get shots, too. Its a strategy called ring vaccination, tailored to put the brakes on in-progress outbreaks. While the vaccine itself is still technically experimental, its also the first time one has ever been deployed to fight a disease like ebola during an outbreak.
So while health officials hope itll fight the disease, theyre also hoping to learn how well it works under real-world conditions. Its under an investigational protocol that needs to follow good clinical practices, needs informed consent from all people who are going to be vaccinated, and specific people trained in deploying the research protocol, serafini says. Thats quite a challenge when the clock is ticking. Disease hunters learn from tragedy. The Ebola outbreak whose first case appeared in guinea in late 2013 spread throughout West Africa and killed more than 11,000 people, but it also taught scientists and health care workers important lessons about how to care for the sick. They learned better approaches to treatment and isolation centers, and they learned the importance of speedy testing and effective distribution of supplies like protective equipment.
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Then read the bbc news article beneath about the drug that the uk survivor received - zmapp. The Ebola virus kills half the people who get it, and its a tragically familiar disease in the democratic Republic of Congo. Since scientists first characterized the disease in 1976, congo has had nine outbreaks. Now its happening again: to date the country has seen 46 possible or confirmed cases, and 26 people are dead. But this time is different. Four cases are in a city—Mbandaka, essay with more than a million people and easy transport to the megacity of Kinshasa. That has chilling implications for the potential spread of the infection. In a rural area you might have had 10 contacts, but in a urban area after two days of fever you might have been in contact with 50, 60, says Micaela serafini, medical director dubai of msf switzerland. It magnifies the response.
You will see that the retrieve mortality rate (number of people who die) for Ebola in the affected areas in West Africa is between 50-90. Click here for a live updated map showing current and new cases of Ebola in West Africa. This map shows you other countries in the world who have ebola cases. Click here for a live updated spreadsheet showing total number of deaths from Ebola in the affected areas. As of this page being written on October 8th 2014, 3431 people had died. Has this number increased since then? Watch the two 'ebola survivor' videos to the right. The first is about a doctor from the usa who contracted and then survived the disease and the second video is about a uk aid worker who had the same experience.
hand, complete the activity in your work booklet. Task 6 - how to avoid catching Ebola. You know that Ebola is transmitted through contact with bodily fluids and that it is not airborne and so can, to some extent, be controlled. Click on this link from the bbc and watch the second video from Hans Rosling to the right. Then complete the three activities set out in your work booklet. Update 8th October spanish Nurse ebola. Bbc news article here. Task 7 - is Ebola only deadly to the poorest?
Complete the tasks in writing your work booklet in your own words. Task 2 - mapping the historical spread of Ebola. Using the same link as task 1 and the map on page 2 of the work booklet, completed the tasks set out. You will need colour pencils and an atlas or google maps. Task 3 - how bad is Ebola compared to other viruses? Click this link to be taken to an infographic about Ebola. Scroll down to the section entitled '. Sorted by number of deaths ' and complete the activities as set out in the work booklet. Task 4 - how deadly is Ebola?
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Objective: to find out what the Ebola virus is and how dark it can be spread. All tasks can be completed by completing the work booklet by clicking on the blue tab to the right. Starter, videos From Memory. Watch the 60 second video to the right hand side that explains what Ebola is, the symptoms and how it is spread. Now complete the tasks in the work book. Task 1 - how where did Ebola start? Click this link from m to read about where scientists believe that the Ebola virus came from. Then watch the hans Rosling video to the right - why did Ebola Spread in West Africa?