Markup as Metadata "Metadata" is becoming a buzzword and the connotations associated with it largely depend on which group is using the term. Librarians may mean one thing; computer scientists another; and archivists still another. But basically, it's just a convenient way of saying one kind of data is being used to provide information about another kind data. Scholarly editions have many kinds of metadata. Printed volumes abound with footnotes or endnotes which provide additional information about the information contained in the documents. Editions frequently include biographical dictionaries which identify the characters of the cast. And they usually include indexes which provide conceptual views of the text.
And with good software, we can use style sheets to determine the letter's appearance - as well as the appearance of all other letters. More striking, however, are the ways we can use the markup to infer information about the letter and other documents in the series. If "George washington" appears in the head, he is almost certainly the author or the addressee of the letter. If he appears in the docbody, he is almost certainly being talked about. And if he appears in the sourcenote, the reference is almost certainly to the location of the original letter. The more sophisticated sgml markup, in and of itself, describes only the structure of the letter. At the same time, the markup serves as a kind of "metadata" which allows users to construct more intelligent and rewarding searches. The search for "George washington" in the head returns a list of all the letters to and from Washington; the search in the docbody element, a list of all the letters in which he is discussed; and the search in the sourcenote element, a list.
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Consider the following example. Letters are the most common type of documents found in documentary editions. This is true for historical editions, literary editions, and editions which deal with the history of science, religion or any other discipline within the humanities. doc head Henry laurens to george washington /head dateline Philadelphia, july 11, 1778 /dateline docbody p I beg leave to refer your Excellency. p p The present cover will convey. p list item.
Empowering your Excellency to call in the aid of such Militia. Intimating the desire of Congress that your Excellency co-operate with Vice Admiral ways count d'Estaing. item /list p Congress have directed me to propose. p closing I have the honor. closing signed Henry laurens. signed /docbody sourcenote als, washington Papers, dlc; /doc with this kind of markup, we begin to see how the document is organized.
Tutorials with explicit examples designed for scholarly editors that we are now developing will, we hope, lower the barriers even further. But why adopt a complicated sgml markup system in the first place, when something as easy to use as html is available? From a scholar's point of view, html has two strikes against. First, html was designed as formatting markup to determine the appearance of text on a computer screen. It's still driven today by that "presentational" aspect.
For example, companies like netscape and Microsoft support extensions of html that reflect the desires of commercial customers to create more attractive pages. Consequently, the new extensions resemble the typesetting markup used to control the appearance of books, journals, and other printed matter. The second strike against html is its simplicity. For example, user searches cannot conveniently distinguish between Washington as president or Washington as the nation's capital, or between information about Washington the person and documents written by washington the person. Because of the ever-increasing quantity of material on the web, intellectual access is a major issue. And that's when the advantages of complex markup systems like those developed by the tei become better alternatives.
Art Cut 114 Design
Anthony: A selection of live texts published in the first volume of the edition and images of original manuscripts and maps documenting their efforts to organize women in western New York. The papers of Henry laurens: A selection of live texts from the published series documenting the seizure of power from the royal authorities during the early stages of the American revolution and utilizing the published index. With the exception of the lincoln Legal Papers, all of the texts and images are part of an sgml homework database. Gluing it together with sgml. At first glance, the 1300-page tei paperless guidelines would appear to be a formidable barrier to any scholar not schooled in technology. Bound in green wrappers and commonly referred to as the "green books the two volumes provide markup schemes for texts ranging from simple poems to others which require word-level markup for linguistic analysis. The needs of documentary editors fall somewhere in between. By taking a subset of the tei markup and making a few alterations, we have developed a markup system that seems far less intimidating.
with and the editorial expertise they bring to the partnership. This is quick look at how the mini-editions are shaping. The margaret Sanger Papers: Images of manuscripts from a variety of collections relating to sanger's indictment for postal violations, with hypertext links to research files, a chronology of Sanger's life, and information relating to the sources. The lincoln Legal Papers: Images of original manuscripts from every court in which Lincoln practiced law, organized into case histories, plus indexes at the subject level and a unique search facility. The papers of General Nathanael Greene: A group of "live texts" of documents and abstracts related to the "Race for the dann" from the published series, with links to the full texts of letters and documents abstracted in the printed series. The documentary history of the first Federal Congress: A selection linking live texts relating to the creation of the Executive department drawn from many volumes in the series as well as unpublished letters on the subject. The documentary history of the constitution and the bill of Rights: A selection of live texts drawn from the volume a necessary evil with sophisticated markup for indexing and retrieval. The papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan.
The partnership, now in its second year, is centered at the University of south Carolina and supported by a three-year grant from the national Historical Publications and Records Commission. The first year, the partners focused largely on the issues of developing a system design to meet the needs scholarly editors (see a "Prospectus for Electronic Historical Editions. This year, they have concentrated on developing a tei/sgml markup system and preparing the content of the prototypes. The final year will be devoted to launching the prototypes and documenting the experience. As a successor to the partnership, we are now preparing the ground to build an American Documentary heritage database (ADH) Unlike the partnership, the adh would include modern editions from all disciplines which publish letters, diaries, journals, public records, and other documentary source materials. The goal is to make the best of modern scholarship available not only in colleges and universities, but also in public libraries and in high schools which offer advanced placement courses in history, literature and the arts. The project involves new kinds of partnerships with both publishers and libraries and posits a self-sustaining economic model. But that's another story. For the moment, i want to give you a sense of the variety of the sample editions underway; essay to elaborate on the partnership's experience with the tei/sgml markup; and then to conclude with a few comments about areas where collaborative research could be fruitful.
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The model Editions Partnership: "Smart Text" and beyond "Smart Text" and beyond, david. Chesnutt, department of History. University of south Carolina, columbia, south Carolina, d-Lib Magazine, july/August homework 1997. Issn, the model Editions Partnership, a consortium of seven historical editions, is currently developing a series of prototypes which will be mounted on the world-Wide web later this year. These small samples (equivalent to 150-200 pages) will demonstrate a variety of intellectual approaches in creating new editions for the Internet. Using a subset of the sgml markup system developed by the text Encoding Initiative (tei the editors are preparing image editions (using images of historical manuscripts) and live text editions (using transcribed historical documents). A third approach uses a sequel database with cgi scripts to provide the user interface. The user interface for the sgml models uses software provided under a grant from Electronic book technologies.